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Wheat (Triticum aestivum Linnaeus);
Barley (Hordeum vulgare Linnaeus) and oats (Avena sativa Linnaeus)

1. Termites : Odontotermes obesus Rambur
Microtermes obesi Holmgren
Social insects that live underground in colonies; attack young seedlings as well as grownup plants; the attacked plants rather wither and ultimately die Mix throughly 5% Aldrin or Chlordane dust with the soil just at the time of sowing or during preparation of the land for sowing
2. Stem-borer
Sesamia inferens Walker
Moths are straw-coloured, lay eggs in clusters inside the leaf-sheaths; pinkish-brown caterpillars bore into stems and kill central shoots; causing dead-hearts In the initial stage, pull out and destroy dead-hearts; dust 5% BHC or spray 0.05% Endosulfdan
3. Gujhia weevil, Tanymecus indius Faust Adults are earthern-grey weevils; grubs feed on roots, whereas the adults cut growing-points or nibble at margins of leaves; severer at the seeding stage Plough the fields in summer to expose and kill the pupae; mix throughly 5% Aldrin or Heptachlor with the 12-25 cm deep layer of soil; for adults, dust 5% BHC
4. Cutworms : Agrotis ipsilon Hufner
A. flammantra Schiffer-Mueller
Caterpillars are general feeders; cut seedlings at the soil level; resowing may be necessary, when attack is severe Dust 10% BHC on the soil around the plants
5. Armyworm, Mythimna unipuncta Harworth See under paddy Same as under paddy
6. Thrip, Anaphothrips flavinctus Karny Nymphs and adults lacerate tender leaves, causing characteristics whitish streaks; low temprature favourable to rapid multiplication Dust 5% BHCor spray 0.02% Phosphamindon or 0.03% Dimethoate or Diazinon
7. Wheat aphids : Schizaphis (Toxoptera) graminum Rondani Rhopalosiphum maidis Fitch Sitobion avenae Fabricius Nymphs and adults suck sap from leaves, tender shoots and immature grain; multiply extremely fast, forming large colonies Dust 5% BHCor spray 0.02% Phosphamindon or 0.03% Dimethoate or Diazinon
8. Surface grasshopper, Chrotogonus trachypterus Blanchard Adults stout, mud-like in colour; polyphagous, feeding on foilage and tender shoots Dust 5-10% BHC
9. Shoot fly, Atherigona naqvii Steyskal The fly has assumed the status of a pest recently; maggots attack seedlings and kill the central shoots, causing dead-hearts Apply Phorate (10%) or Disulfoton (5%) to the soil at the time of sowing; spray seedlings with 0.03% Dimethoate, Phosphamidon or Methyl-demeton.


JOWAR, MAIZE AND MILLETS

Jowar (Sorghum bicolor Moench)

1 Shoot fly, Atherigona soccata Rodani Damage caused during the earlt seeding stage, larvae cut the growing points, causing dead-hearts; tillers do develop after the central shoot is killed, but the yield from these tillers is rather poor; commoner is early-sown rabi or late-sown kharif crops Adjust the sowing date, increase the seed-rate, uproot and destroy the infested seedlings; treat the seed material with carbofuron (20:1); or apply 3% Carbofuran, 5% Disulfoton or 10% Phorate granules
2 Stem borers : Jowar, Chilo zonellus(partellus) Swinhoe Ragi, Sesamia inferens Walker Occur throughout India; moth, dirty brownish, nocturnal, caterpillars feed on foilage and bore into the stems, causing dead-hearts; also tunnel the stem and bore into earheads. See under wheat Plough and destroy all the stubble after harvest; apply 4% Endosulfan or Carbaryl granules or spray 0.05% Lindane
3 Sorghum midge, Contarinia sorghicola Coquillett The insect has assumed the status of a serious pest recently; cosmopolitan; the tiny pinkish fly lay eggs inside the glumes and the larvae feed on the ovaries, thus preventing seed formation Burn the panicle residue and chaff obtained after the threshing or grain to destroy the diapausing larvae; adopt a uniform date of sowing, and preferably grow only one variety; apply 0.05% Endosulfan, 0.1% Carbaryl or 0.05% Lindane sprays or dusts
4 Aphids : Phopalosiphum maidis Fitch Aphis sacchari Zehntner Nymphs and adults suck the sap from the leaves and shoots, exclude honeydew, on which a sooty mould grows, giving the leaves a black appearance and interfering with photosynthesis. R. maidis is more serious and is found all over India, whereas A. sacchari is common in southern India Spray 0.02% Phosphamindon, 0.04% Diazinon, Methyldemeton or Dimethoate
5 Deccan wingless grasshopper, Colemania sphenaroides Boliver Phadka grasshopper, Hieroglyphus Bolivar Eggs are laid in the soil 75-200 mm deep; hoppers and adults feed on foilage, at times causing severe defoilation of the crops; adults of C. sphenaroides are wingless, whereas those of H. nigrorepletus are short winged and can fly short distances only Destroy eggs in the soil by deep ploughing soon after harvest; dust hoppers and adults with 5 and 10% BHC respectively
6 Earhead bug, Calocoris angustatus Lethierry Nymphs and adult bugs suck the sap from tender grains at the milky stage, making them chaffy; commoner in southern India Dust the maturing earheads with 5% BHC or 4% Carbaryl, or spray 0.1% Carbaryl(W.P)
7 Sorghum shoot bug, Peregrinus maidis Ashmead Nymphs and adult bugs suck the sap from the leaves and whorls which turn pale green. Also reported as a virus vector Same as for aphids
8 Cut worm : Agrotis ipsilon Hufner

A. flammatra Schiffer-Mueller

See under wheat Same as in the case of wheat
9 Hairy caterpillars : Amsacta mooreiButler Estigmene lactinae Cramer General feeders, occur throughout India, freauently causing severe defoilation; caterpillars of a A. moorei are red whereas those of E. lactinae are black Dust 10% BHC; undertake organized campaigns against the early-stage caterpillers
10 Earhead caterpillars : Eublemma (Heliothis) armigera Hubner and other species Occur throughout the country; caterpillers feed on maturing grains Same as for earhead bugs
11 Mites : Oligonychus indicus Hirst

Schizotetranychus andropogoni Hirst

Colonies of nymphs and adults suck the sap from the undersurface of the leaves, causing reddish-brown spots and patches Dust sulphur or spray 0.05% wettable sulphur

Maize (Zea mays Linnaeus)

1 Stem borers : Chilo zonellus Swinhoe Sesamia inferens Walker A major pest of jowar; caterpillars feed on leaves during the early stage and later bore into the stem and cobs
See under wheat
Same as in the case of Jowar
2 Phadka grass hopper, Hieroglyphus nigrorepletus Bolivar See under jowar Same as in the case of Jowar
3 Hairy caterpillars :
Amsacta moorei Butler
A. albistriga Walker
See under jowar Same as in the case of Jowar
4 Aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidias Fitch See under jowar Same as in the case of Jowar
5 Termites : Odontotermes obesus Rambur Microtermes obesi Holmgren See under wheat Same as in the case of Wheat
6 Grey weevils, Myllocerus spp Polyphagous; adult beetles feed on the green leaves, cause serious damage when the seeedlings are infested Dust 10% BHC
7 Shoot fly, Atherigona spp A minor pest in the spring season crops I necessary, apply 10% Phorate or 5% Disulfotan granules, in seed furrows at the time of sowing
8 Armyworm. Mythimna unipuncta Haworth See under rice Same as in the case of rice

Bajra (Pennisetum typhoides Staph and Hubbard)

1 Blister beetles, Lytta tenuicollis Pallas Zonabris pustulata Thunberg Adult beetles feed on pollen and flowers; commoner in Gujarat and southern India Dust earheads at the flowering stage, with 5-10% BHC or 5% carbaryl
2 Leaf roller, Marasmia trapezalis Guenee Slender, yellowish-green caterpillars fold and roll the leaves near the tips and feed inside on the chlorophyll Dust 5% BHC as soon as the damage is observed
3 Shoot fly, Atherigone approximata Malloch A pest in Gujarat and Tamil Nadu; the flies cut the growing-points, causing dead-hearts during the seedling stage, whereas in the advanced stage; they feed on earheads and cut down peduncies Same as for sorghum fly, or control at the seedling stage; in the advanced stage of the crops, spray 0.04% Endosulfan or 0.1% Carbaryl
4 Bajra, midge, Geromyia pennisetti Harris Reported as a pest from Tamil nadu only; the larvae destroy the ovaries seriously, affecting the development of seeds The same as for sorghum midge

Ragi (Eleusine coracana Gaertn)
(Most of the other pests listed under jowar also occur on bajra)

1 Ragi stem-borer, Sesamia inferens Walker See under Wheat Same as in the case of wheat
2 Ragi white borer, Saluria inficita Walker A specific pest of ragi; creamy white caterpillars bore into the stems close to the soil surface; adults are dark brown, with a pale-white band along the margin of each forewing Same as in the case of jowar stem-borer
3 Black hairy caterpiller, Estigmene exigua Hubner Also known as woolly bear caterpiller; feed on leaves and earheads; the adults are creamy white moths with characteristic crimson marks on the head and the body Dust 10% BHC; the early stage caterpillers are easier to control
4 Lucerne caterpiller, Spcdoptera exigua Hubner Smooth, brownish-green caterpillers feed on foilage, moving in large numbers from field to field; common in nurseries Dust 10% BHC, covering also the soil surface near the plants
5 Ragi-root aphid, Tetraneura hirsuta Baker Minute, pale-white insect, found damaging roots, resulting in a gradual drying up of plants; infestation by the presence of black ants Mix 10% BHC; dust with the soil near the base of plants
6 Ragi jassid, Cicadulina bipunctella bipunctella Nymphs and adults suck the sap from the leaves and stems; an important vector of ragi mosaic virus Spray 0.03% Phosphamindon, 0.04% Diazinon or Dimethoate
7 Surface grasshoppers, Chrotogonus spp See under wheat The same as in the case of wheat



    - Diseases of Crops
    - Insect Pests of Crops
    - Weed Control