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Descriptive features of weed control recommendations

S.
No.
Family
or natu-
ral order
Descriptive features of the family Habit and habitat of weeds Herbicide recommendations
  (1) (2) (3) (4)
1. Acantha
ceae (acanthus
family)
Herbs or shrubs. Leaves, opposite, ex-stipulate. Flowers, bisexual, irregular. Calyx 4-5 partite. Corolla, two-lipped and five-lobed. Stamens, four or two, epipetalous. Fruit, a capsule. Justicia quinqangularis, an annual Kharif season weed, occuring in crops, like rice, maize, sugarcane and cotton. In the case of rice, MCPA or MCPB @ 5kg ha+urea 3% in 700 litres of water 3-4 weeks after direct seeding or transplanting. In the case of cotton, CMU pre-emergence @ 0.5- 1.0 kg/ha in 900 litres 0f water. In the case of maize and sugarcane, Atrazine or Simazine pre-emergence @ 1 kg/ha in 900 litres of water.
2. Amarant-
haceae
(pigweed
family)
Leaves, alternate; flowers, small, without petals, subtended by small bristly bracts. Fruit, one seeded, the thin pericarp releases the lens-shaped, shiny black seeds Amaranthus spinosus(kataili chulai) Annual a. viridis Annual Reported to grow in sugarcane, maize, rice and onion A. polygamous (Csiru kearai) Celosia argentea, cock's comb (sufaid murga); Annual.Digera arvensis(tendala) Annual, a kharif season weed occuring in millets, maize, sugarcane and cotton; Achyranthes aspera;(chirchiri) in wasteland  In the case of rice, MCPA or MCPB @0.5 kg/ha + urea 2%. In the case of cotton, CMU pre-emergence @ 0.5-1.0 kg/ha 2-3 weeks after transplanting.(Other details given above)
3. Asclepia
daceae
(milk-weed
family)
Herbs or shrubs with milky juice.Leaves,opposite ex-stipulate. Flowers,regular,bisexual and in umbellatem clusters. Calyx,5-lobed; corolla, gamopetalous. Stamens,five and filaments and united.Fruit consists of two follicles. Calotropis gigantea. A large shrub.Mostly seen on waste and submarginal land. Suspectable to 2,4-D amine 1-2 l/ha in 900 litres of water before flowering.
4. Boragi
naceae
Leaves, alternate, exstipulate; flower, regular; corolla, gamopetalous; stamens, 5, attached to the corolla tube. Fruit, a drupe, or breaks into 2-4 nutlets. Heliotropium eichwaldi Annual H. indicum Annual Reported to occur in sugarcane, maize and cotton. In the case of sugarcane and maize, Atrazine or Simazine @ 1 kg/ha. For other details refer to No.1.
5. Cannab
inaceae
or Urti
caceae
(nettle
family)
Plants annual. Leaves, palmately compound in Cannabis Flowers, greenish; male flowers, borne in long drooping panicles and female flowers borne in short axillary spikes. Cannabis sativa Annual, (bhang) dioecious in nature. Occurs on wasteland, bunds and water channels. Susceptible to 2,4-D ester or a mixture of 2,4-D+2,4,5-T @ 1.0-2.0/ha during flowering or earlier.
6. Chenopo
diaceae
(goosefoot
family)
Leaves, alternate; flowers small, without petals, no bristly bracts. Fruit, one-seeded and the pericarp is adherent to the seed. Chenopodium album (lamb's-quarters) (bathua) C. murale (khar bathua) Annual rabi-season weeds, dominant in rabi cereals, peas, potato, linseed and carrot. In the case of monocot crops, 2,4-D amine @0.5 kg/ha+urea 3 percent in 700 litres of water, 3-4 weeks after sowing. In the case of peas and linseed, MCPB @ 0.84 l/ha in 700 litres of water 6 weeks after sowing. In the case of potato and carrot, Linuron @ 0.5 kg/ha pre-emergence. In the case of sugar-beet, a pre-emergence soil application of Pyrazon at 2-3 kg/ha in 1,000 litres of water is very effective against Chenopodium spp. and other annual dicot weed.
7. Compositae
(sunflower
family)
Flowers aggregated in heads comprising outerray flowers and inner tubular or disc flowers. Carthamus oxyacantha Annual (wild safflower or pohli) Sonchus oleraceus Annual (The common sowthistle or doodhli) Ageratum conyzoides (mahakama) Annual Cnicus arvensis (kantaili) Annuala rabi crops such as wheat, potato, linseed and peas. Parthenium hysterophorus Annual (congress ghas, safed topi, chamakta chandni). Prolific-seeder, extensively spread because of light seed, armed with pappus that facilitates its dispersal through natural agencies, such as wind, water, air and animals including man. Cirsiumarvense, Perennial (Canada thistle) Plushea lanceolata, Perennial (baisuri or kadjal). Reproduction through underground rhizomes. Mostly found in non-cropped areas. In the case of monocot crops(Refer item No. 6). In the case of potato and peas Linuron @ 0.5 kg/ha pre-emergence in 900 litres of water. In the case of linseedMCPB (Refer item No. 6). In the case of non-cropped areas, a spraying with any one of 2, 4-D, aminotriazole, Paraquate Banvel D and MSMA at 2-4 litres/ha before flowering will kill the weed and prevent its flowering and seed production. For Canada thistle; 2,4-D low volatile ester 1.5 l/ha in 900 litres of water at the early bloom stage or aminotriazole at 2 kg l/ha+ a wetting agent (6fl. oz) spray at the flowering stage.
8. Convolvu
laceae
(morning-
glory
family)
Plants, viny, trailing or twining, Leaves, alternate, entire, with a pair of basal lobes. Flowers, large, gamopetalous, with a basal tube and a spreading limb. Fruit, a 2-chambered capsule, with 2-5 seeds in each chamber. Convolvulus arvensis, Perennial (field bindweed or hirankuri) Ipomoea reptans Aquatic weed, Evolvulus alsinoides (Vishnu krantha) Dodders ao Cuscuta spp. Flowering parasites. For field binweed and ipomoea reptans: In non-cropped land and monocot crops, 2,4-D amine 1.0 litre/ha + urea 3 percent in 900 litres of water before flowering of the weed. For dodder 2kg/ha granulated CIPC.
9. Crucife
rae
(mustard
family)
Leaves, alternate. Flowers cruciform (cross-like), with 4 sepals, 4 petals and 6 stamens. Fruit, a siliqua, podlike, or short and flattened, with two chambers separated by a central partition bearing two to several seeds, usually dehiscent. Brassica sinensis (wild mustard or jungli sarson), Sisymbrium irio, Nasturtium indicum. In the case of peas and potato. Linuron (Ref.No. 7).In wheat, 2,4-D + urea (Ref. No. 6). In the case of linseed, MCPB (Ref. No. 6)
10. Cypera
ceae
(sedge
family)
Stems, solid and 3-angled. Leaves, similar to those of grasses, with a linear blade and basal sheath; leaf sheath forming a closed tube around the stem. Flowers, without petals, variously arranged often in spikes, enclosed by a single bract. Fruit, a flattened or 3-angled achene, with a thick hard pericarp. Cyperus rotundus (Nutgrass or purple nutsedge or motha C. esculentus (Yellow nutsedge present in the USA) C. iria Perennial. Present in both cropped and non-cropped land all over the world. Reproduction through vegetative means. An effective method of controlling nutsedge in arable land consists in giving 2-4 ploughings during may and June; immediately after each ploughing spray on the soil a mixture of 2,4-D + Dalapon 2 kg/ha of each in 900 litres of water, sowing of hybrid maize in the last week of June, using atrazine pre-emergence @ 1 kg/ha in the case of maize, and after maize, raise a wheat crop in the rabi season.
11. Euphor
biaceae
(Spurge
family)
Plants,diverse as to vegetative characters. Common species,with milky juice. Flowers,much reduced,without petals,in some species with coloured bracts which resemble petals. Fruit,usually a 3-lobed, 3-chambered capsule,with one seed in each chamber. Euphorbia prostrata
Annual (milkweed
E.hirta(dudhi),,
E.racunculoaies,,
Reported to occur in wheat,gram,millets and maize
Phyllanthus niru.i ,,
Reported to occur in rice.
Except in the case of gram, 2,4-D,or MCPA or MCPB at 1 Kg/ha in 700 litres of water will kill these weeds.
12. Grami
neae
(grass
family)
Plants,wth hollow round or flat stems(culms). Leaves,arranged in two rows on the opposite sides of the stem, consisting of a blade, a sheath and a ligule. The blade is entire, linear, and parallel-veined. The flower consists of a pistil and three stamens. Each flower is enclosed by a pair of unequal bracts,one on each side, the larger is the lemma and the smaller is the palea. The unit consisting of the flower, lemma and the palea is the floret. The florets are arranged in spikelets each of which consists of central axis, a pair of bracts(glumes) at the base, and one to several florets above. Fruit, a grain or caryopsis, 1-seeded, the fruit coat permanently adherent about the seed. Echinochloa crusgalli
<(barnyard grass)(samaghas) E.colonum An annual kharifseason weed dominant in rice.Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass or doob. Perennial in almost all crops and situations.
Saccharum spontaneum(wild sugarcane or kans) Perennial, reported to occur in sugarcane, cotton and millets.
Sorghum halepense(Johnson grass or baru) Perennial, reported to occur in sugarcane, maize and cotton. Avena fatua (wild oats or Jungli jai) A.ludoviciana Annual, reported to occur in wheat, peas, potato, gram and linseed.
Phalaris spp. Annual Reported to occur in rabi crops.
In case of rice,propanil 2 litres/ha in 700 litres of water 2-3 weeks after transplanting or direct seeding. For annual grasses in cotton, treat with pre-plant Treflan 2 i/ha or Diuron or Cotoran 0.5-1.0 kg/ha pre-emergence. In the case of maize and sugarcane, Atrazine pre-emergence (Ref.no. 4). For Cynodon, a combination of mechanical and chemical, and cropping methods (Ref.No.10). For wild oats in wheat and barley, Carbyne (Barban) @0.5 i/ha at the 2 leaf-stage of the weed as a very low-volume spraying or preplant Avadex(trillate) at 2 l/ha. Phalaris sp. in wheat is controlled effectively by a pre-emergence application of Tribunil at 2 kg/ha in 900 litres of water. A single application of this chemical, in addition to killing this annual grass weed, is also lethal to all annual dicot weed.
13. Labiatae
(mint
family)
Plants, with square stems and aromatic odour. Leaves, simple, exstipulate,opposite toothed or lobed. Flowers, gamopetalous, irregular, 2-lipped. The fruit, consists of usually 4, dry single-seeded nutlets. Leucas aspera Annual
Ocimum canum Annual
Suceptible to 2, 4-D amine 1 kg/ha in 900 litres of water.
14. Legumin
osae(legume
family)
Leaves, alternate, compound, with three leaflets. Flowers irregular with a larger petal(standard), 2-side petals (wings), and two inner petals which are fused(keel) and enclosed the pistil and stamens. Fruits, a pod, 1-celled. Several-seeded and dehiscent, e.g. bean pod or one-seeded and indehiscent(sweet clover) Melilotus (white sweet clover). Annual, in rabi crops. M. indica(senji) Annual in rabi crops. Vicia sativa (common vetch) Annual in rabi crops. Tephrosia purpurea. A perennial under-shrub in arid tracts. Prosopis juliflora(mesquite) A perennial small tree in non-cropped land. Alhagi camelorum (Camelthorn or javasa). A thorny perinnial in fallow land. Mimosa pudica (touch-me-not or lajjavanti). A thorny perennial. 2, 4-D in cereals at 1 kg/ha kills the annual legumes. For perennials, a mixture of 2, 4-D and 2, 4, 5-T at 1-2 l/ha before flowering.
15. Orbanch
aceae
(broomrape
family)
Brown or yellowish herbs, without green leaves and parasitic on the roots of other plants. Stem, simple with a few scales and ends in a spike of flowers, irregular and bisexual, calyx, 2-4-lobed; corolla, gamopetalous, stamens 4, didynamous and epipetalous, numerous seeds. Orobanche cernua (broomrape)
O.indica An annual root parasite on tobacco, mustard, etc.
Eradication with chemicals without affecting the host plants is difficult the removal of immature plants as they emerge from the soil and before they form seeds prevents its spread. Heavy infested areas can be reclaimed by growing a trap crop and spraying with 1-2 i/ha of amine 2, 4-D. 2, 4-DES at 6 kg/ha in 1,000 litres of water applied at 4-6 week intervals or in split applications at 3 kg/ha each time 2 and 6 weeks after transplanting tobacco; reduce the population of broomrape plants considerably. Sprays with amyl alcohol (0.1-0.2 per cent) are reported to be effective against broomrape in tobacco.
16. Papaver
aceae
(poppy
family)
Annuals, with prickly stems and leaves. Juice, yellow-orange. Sepals, 2 or 3, falling off when the flower opens. Petals, 4,stamens, many. Fruit, a capsule, many seeds, with oily endosperm Argemone nexicana (prickly poppy or bharbhand or satyanasi ). Annual, spread all over India, in all crops, especially wheat and mustard In the case of monocot crops, 2, 4-D amine+urea (Ref. No. 6). In mustard, nitrofen pre-emergence 1-2 l/ha in 900 litres of water.
17. Ponteder
iaceae
(water
hyacinth
family)
The family consists of erect or floating fresh water and marsh herbs. Flowers, bisexual more or less irregular usually in a recemose inflorescence from a spathe like bract. Perianth, tubular cinsisting of six petal like parts in two whorls. Stamens, 6, unequal, attached, to the perianth tube. Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth). A free-floating or surface perennial, one of the worst aquatic weed, occuring all over the globe. 2, 4-Dester of low volatiolity @ 1-2 kg in 700 litres of water during the active growing season; Amitrole-T 2 i/ha in 00 litres of water at peak growth; repeat the application of Paraquat 2 i/ha. The addition of urea 3 percent to low doses of any of the post-emergence herbicides at lower dosage levels(1 kg or l/ha) improves the weed killing effect.
18. Scrophu
lariaceae (figwort
family)
Herbs, sometimes semiparasitic, or shrubs. Leaves, exstipulate. Flowers, bisexual and usually irregular. Calyx, 4-5 lobed and 2-lipped. Stamens, usually 4, epipetalous and didynamous. Fruit, a capsule, with many seeds. Striga asiatica (witch weed)
S.lutea
S.euphrasioides
Annual root; parasites reported to occur in bajra, sorghum,sugarcane and rice.
In the case of monocot crops, 2,4-Damine @ l/ha in 900 litres of water soon after the germination of the parasite; fence @ 3 kg/ha in 700 litres of water as pre-planting soil incorporation, especially in the case of sugarcane.
19. Solana
ceae
(potato
family)
Leaves, alternate. Calyx, five-lobed; flowers, gamopetalous, regular, tubular or with tube and expanded limb. Stamens, 5, attached to the corolla tube. Fruit, a berry or a capsule with many seeds. Solanum Xanthocarpum(kateli)
A perennial spiny herb. Solanum elaeagnifolium (white horse nettle) Perennial, reported to be very prevalent in southern India.
2,4,5-T @ 1 kg/ha in 1,000 litres of water at the young stage before leaves become tough. For Solanum elasagnifolium, 2,4-D amine foliar spray during the period of active growth at 2 litres/ha in 900 litres of water effects remarkable reduction in the regeneration of the weed control. After this chemical treatment, if the land is cropped to sorghum, the further spread of this perennial weed control is prevented.
20. Typha
ceae
Typhas are gregarious, robust, grass-like herbs, attaining a height of even 3m and flourishing under water-logged conditions. Flowers are small in long dense cylindric, terminal spikes. Cattails and tules (Typha sp.) Aquatic emersed perennials Dalapon @ 5kg+ wetting agent 0.5 kg to be sprayed during the active growth of Aminotriazole 1 kg+a wetting agent or 2,4-D as an ester of low volatility @ 1 kg+diesel oil in 4.5 litres in 500 litres of water.
21. Verben
aceae
(vervain
family).
Herbs, shrubs or trees, exstipulate leaves; calyx 4-5 or more-lobed and sometimes coloured. Corolla, tube has a 2-lipped or 4-5-lobed limb. Stamens are 4 and didynamous. Lantana camara perennial(tantani) shrub. A mixture of 2, 4-D+ 2, 4, 5T (Brush killer) at 1-2 kg in 1,000 litres of water at the pre-bloom stage.




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    - Insect Pests of Crops
    - Weed Control
    - Nematodes